السبت، 12 نوفمبر، 2011

3.1: Introduction to our PLC we use(Moeller).

The plc is used is the Ps4-201a klochner moeler micro plc . the plc has a basic unit (containing the processor) and can have several expansion units that expand the number of I/Os . expansion units are categorized as:
Local Expansion Units: Non-programmable and are directly linked to the processor via flat cable.
Remote Expansion Units: programmable units including other plcs connected via network connection.


  • Hardware and software requirement Sucosoft S 40
To program the PS4-201 you need a PC With at least a Pentium processor
a Windows 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT 4.01)operating system
at least 16 Mbyte RAM ,3.5″disk drive/1.44 MByte and CD-ROM drive
Hard disk with at least 40 MByte free capacity; the temporary directory C:\ {_S40_}.TMP is created during the installation and deleted again.
This requires at least 250 Kbytes free space on drive C:
Serial ports (COM 1 to COM 4)
Parallel printer port (LPT1)
VGA graphics card
Programming cable ZB4-303-KB1 (connecting cable between PC and PS4-201)

  • Features The main features of the PS4-201 PLC are as follows:

24 V DC power supply
8 digital inputs, 2 4V DC
6 digital outputs, 24 V DC
2 analog inputs
1 analog output



السبت، 15 أغسطس، 2009

2.2: Project Description


Our project(Home automation system) consists of four main small systems

1. HAVAC(heat ventilation adaptive control)system.

2. Lighting control system.

3. Fire system

4. Security control system.

· Burglar security system.

HAVAC system :

  • The temperature sensor (heat)detects if the temperature excess a certain degree , the fan will be activated .
  • The ventilation activated according to a flicker logic it be on for a period of time (T1) and it will be deactivated for another period of time (T2) and T2 should be greater than T1 to keep ventilator from breakdown.

Note :the fan and ventilator can't be activated if there is a fire on the system.

Lighting system:

In this system we divide it into inside and outside lighting control system.

  • For outside lighting there is a light detector , if it is dark or if there is no enough light outside the home , the outside lamps will be activated automatically.

  • For inside lighting the lamps will be activated when the door is opened and still activated till the user presses the deactivated push button.


Fire system

  • The smoke sensor detects if there a fire which may be occurs on the system and the fire siren will be activated.

Security system:

  • The burglar security system . it has its own start and stop push buttons . there is two photoelectric barriers on towards the main door and the other on the window of the home. If any of photoelectric barriers is interrupted the burglar siren will be activated till the user presses a stop push button.

Note: when the photoelectric sensor is interrupted the outside and inside lamps will be turned on and also the two siren.

So in our project we use (8 inputs) and (6 outputs)

→The inputs that we use :

  • Start push button for the system.
  • Stop push button for the system.
  • Start push button for the security system.
  • Start push button for the security system.
  • Temperature sensor.
  • Smoke sensor.
  • Photocell sensor.
  • Photoelectric sensor.

→The outputs that we use:

  • Fan
  • Ventilator.
  • Siren for burglar.
  • Siren for fire.
  • Outside lamp.
  • Inside lamp.

☺In the next chapters we will analyze each input and output and define it by using the ladder diagram(software) and we will define the steps of designing the control panel(Mimic) that consists of Leds and push buttons on the door of the panel and we put the PLC itself and Relays inside the panel and inside the panel and we make the isometric shape of the home that we put inside it the output and inputs

Then the wires that get out from the isometric shape will be collected together and get out from the home then connected to the panel that inside it all the wires to make the shape is beautiful .so it is discussed in details in the next chapters.




2.1: Introduction to our project


These days, home automation is very important. Home automation involves an integrated system of monitors that automatically operate different functions such as lighting, heating, cooling, ventilation and elevator systems, Appliances and security (Fire, Burglar…) alarm. Any company works in (control systems) technology field might get benefits from this project. Companies may setup a full office automation system to its clients. Hotels may be automated by this project to have more Lodgers.

Tourism can have huge benefits because tourists number might be increase, hence the national income will increase. This project will consume the time which be wasted in manual process inside (homes, offices, hotels…) in business [time is money]. Handy-cap and older people can have special care.


This project is useful in understanding and learning more about plc

That mean that it is an educational project that it is useful in laboratory to learn students how the plc work using actuators (output to the plc) as (fan, ventilator, valve,….etc) and using the push buttons are the input of the automated process which can be start or stop operation(security , HAVAC) and using sensors as (Temperature , smoke , photocell, photoelectric) and how use all tools of plc as timers

Our project consists of board which contain push buttons &sensors& actuators. And each process is connected below the wood that was designed to disappear the wiring connection of each one . the following steps is a systematic approach of control system design such this steps help you how to use the programmable logic control .

  • A systematic approach of control system design using a programming logic controller:

The concept of controlling a control system is very simple and easy task it involves systematic approach by following operation procedure

  1. Determine the system sequence of operation .

Firstly you have to decide what system you want to control the ultimate purpose of the programmable controller is to control an external system . this system to be controlled can be process and is often generically called the control system .The movement of the controller system is constantly monitored by the input devices that give a specified condition and send a signal to the programmable controller outputs a signal to the external output devices which actually control

the movement of the controlled specified and thus achieves the external control action .

2. Assignment of Inputs and outputs:

Secondly , all external input and output devices to be connected to the programmable controllers must be determined . the input devices are the various switches , sensors , etc . the output devices are the fans, sirens , valves, motors etc.

After identifying all the various input and output devices , assigned the numbers

corresponding to the input and output number of the particular programmable

controller you will using . the actual wiring will follow the numbers of the

programmable controller . the assignment of INPUT and OUTPUT numbers be

carried out before writing the ladder diagram because the number dictate what is the

precise meaning of the contacts in the ladder diagram .

3. writing of the program :

Next , write the ladder diagram program by following the control system sequence of operation as determined by step one.

4.programming into Memory :

Now , you can apply the programmable controller . depending on the type of programmable controller , you may have to do a I/O generation to prepare the system configuration . After that , you program in the memory by computer aided ladder software

tool. After completion of the programming , you should check for any coding errors by means of diagnostic function , and if possible simulate the whole operation to see that it is alright .

5. Running the system:

Before the start push –button is pressed , thorough ensure that

the input and output wiring are correctly connected according to

the I/O Assignment. Once confirmed, the actual operation of the

plc can now be started . you may need to debug alone the way

Test run thoroughly until it is safe to operate by anyone.

After we speak about how to design a control system using programmable logic control (PLC) we will describe our project Briefly . then speak about each one inputs and outputs in details in the next chapters .



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الجمعة، 7 أغسطس، 2009

1.7: PLC product application language



The PLC market can be segmented into five groups:

1. Micro PLCs

2. Small PLCs

3. Medium PLCs

4. Large PLCs

5. Very large PLCs


Figure 1-9 graphically illustrates programmable controller product ranges.

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Micro PLCS are used in applications controlling up to 32 input and output devices, 20 or less I/O being the norm. The micros are followed by the small PLC category, which controls 32 to 128 I/O. The medium (64 to 1024 I/O), large (512 to 4096I/O), and very large (2048 to 8192I/O) PLCs complete the segmentation

The A, B, C overlapping areas in the figure reflect enhancement adding options, of the standard features of the PLCS within a particular segment. These options allow a product to be closely matched to the application without having to purchase of larger unit. The differences between PLCs in overlapping areas include I/O count, memory size, programming language, software functions, and other factors .an understanding of the plc product ranges and their characteristic will allow the user to properly identify the controller that will satisfy a particular application.